The list, a copy of which was obtained by The New York Times, reads like a who’s who of the Russian defense and intelligence sectors. It includes the United Aircraft Corporation, which makes Sukhoi jets and Tupolev passenger airliners, Kalashnikov Concern, which makes the famed assault weapon used around the world, and Rosoboronexport, the chief state-owned arms exporter in the country.
Democrats and several powerful Senate Republicans, led by Mr. McCain, had grown frustrated over the delay in recent days. Mr. McCain, a fierce critic of Russia, threatened to use his position as the chairman of the Armed Services Committee to try to force the administration to comply.
“We passed the law. They should execute it,” Senator Marco Rubio, Republican of Florida, said earlier on Thursday, before the list was shared with lawmakers. “They say they are struggling to identify the companies to sanction. My answer is, sanction the ones you already know and keep adding to the list.”
The Trump administration answered those criticisms with assurances that it was working to draw up a list of targets, but that with minimal staff in place in the State Department and given the complexity of the legislation, it was taking longer than the law allowed for.
The Russia measures were part of a larger sanctions package approved with near unanimous support by the House and Senate and signed by President Trump in early August. The legislation also included sanctions on Iran and North Korea, but it was the Russia sanctions, as well as a provision limiting Mr. Trump’s authority to lift them, that most irked the president.
The sanctions were seen as a rebuke by lawmakers of both parties of Mr. Trump’s friendly posture toward President Vladimir V. Putin of Russia and an effort to punish Russia for its annexation of Crimea, its military intervention in Ukraine and its meddling in the 2016 presidential election.
Critics of the president have accused Mr. Trump of failing to be aggressive enough toward one of America’s biggest adversaries even as people connected to his administration are being investigated for collusion with Russians during last year’s race.
The United States’ spy agencies have concluded that the Russian interference began as an effort to hurt Hillary Clinton’s candidacy, but later tried to explicitly help Mr. Trump. Three congressional committees and a Justice Department special counsel, Robert S. Mueller III, continue to investigate how the campaign was carried out and whether Mr. Trump’s associates were involved.